Epilepsy is a severe neurological disorder affecting children as well as adults. The patient experiences episodes of convulsive body movements medically termed as seizures. The seizures are typically described and observed as spasmodic, irregular body movements, affecting various muscle groups of body. It may present with varying intensity and duration, and different groups of muscles in different individuals, at different times.

Usually, epilepsy or seizures arise due to abnormal electrical activity in the brain which is reflecting on different groups of muscles.

Epilepsy is a chronic disease having a tendency to decline periodically and for many years to life time, if not effectively treated.


The most common symptom of epilepsy is recurring paroxysm or seizures. Seizures are involuntary movements, like thrashing or jerking, or experiencing strange feelings or sensations, which can be associated with loss of consciousness or being ignorant of things happening around. One can experience and describe seizures in various ways, as it is often a subjective experience

  • Before appearance of seizure may be hours or days ago, person can notice various changes in his behavior or mood.
  • The relevant history can be obtained from friend or patient himself.
  • The patient may also experience aura before the seizure attack, in which the patient feels that he has seen this before or lived this before or may smell weird things or see flashes of lights.
  • After a partial seizure there can be short-term weakness of the affected limb.
  • After generalized seizure the patient may feel unpleasant with myalgia headache, confusion, and a sore tongue.

It all occurs because the transmission of the electrical activity between the brain cells recess for a while manifesting as seizures. Seizures could be of various forms; but for a given patient they tend to be stereotyped.

Generally seizures can also be caused due to decrease in sodium salts from the body, or due to high fever or even due to hypoxia. The diagnosis could be stigmatizing and has implications for employment, insurance and driving.

Not everything that twitches is epilepsy; but tongue biting is very suggestive of epilepsy

Causes of epilepsy

There are several possible causes for epilepsy: They may be grouped as:

Physical causes

  • Stroke
  • Very raised blood pressure
  • Tuberous sclerosis
  • Space occupying lesion
  • Trauma

Metabolic causes

  • Hyperglycemia (high sugar level)
  • Hypoglycemia (low sugar level)
  • Uremia
  • Hypernatraemia (high sodium level)
  • Hyponatraemia (low sodium level)
  • Hypocalcaemia
  • Hypoxia low oxygen level)
  • Alcohol withdrawal
  • Drugs-Phenothiazine, cocaine, benzodiazepines
  • Liver diseases


  • Encephalitis
  • Cysticercosis
  • HIV
  • Syphilis

Classification of epilepsy

The seizures that the patient experiences are of diverse forms, they are categorized as below:

Partial epilepsy

In this, the patient can lose consciousness, there can be twitching or jerking of one single part like twitching of facial muscles or twitching of fingers. It happens due to the pausing of the electrical movement in the brain, which can be in one part, or may move to another part or can stay in one area until the seizure is over.

Generalized seizure

Electrical disturbances occurrence all over brain at same time are generalized seizures. They are further categorized as follows:

  • Petit mal :- the discussion is associated with brief pauses e.g. suddenly stops talking in middle of the sentence, and then carries on where he left off. Usually seen in childhood.
  • Grand mal :- Has sudden start, with loss of consciousness, limbs stiffened, and then they jerk and can feel drowsy post seizure.
  • Myoclonic jerk :- Giving up of the limb or sudden fall on the ground
  • Atonic :- becoming loose
  • Akinetic :- Usually linked with less motility of limbs like in infantile spasms

Homeopathic treatment

Homeopathy is strongly suggested as supportive line of treatment along with conventional treatment, in most cases.

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